A study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology showed the cytotoxicity of Fumaria officinalis extracts in multiple myeloma (MM) cells.
Researchers assessed both cytotoxic and ferroptotic activity using resazurin reduction assay. They then analyzed flow cytometry, immunoblotting assay, and fluorescence microscopy to measure cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss integrity of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and autophagy.
According to the researchers’ findings, both chloroform (CF) and ethyl acetate (EF) fractions demonstrated drastic cytotoxic effect on MM cell lines (CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR 5000 cells). The study showed the NCI-H929 cell line showed higher sensitivity against CF, while EF demonstrated its higher cytotoxicity on OPM-2 cells with IC50 value 14.80 ± 1.70 and 28.13 ± 1.38 μg/mL, the researchers noted.
An analysis of flow cytometric and morphological data confirmed that CF and EF produced apoptosis in NCI-H929 cells by loss of MMP, generation of ROS, and obvious morphological variations. Moreover, in DNA histograms, the researchers found that about half of the cells were collated by CF and 44% by EF in the sub-G0/G1 phase following 72 hours of treatment.
“EF induced autophagic cell death, while CF stimulated iron-dependent cell death. Moreover, two isoquinoline alkaloids and four flavonoids were identified in the active fractions,” the researchers concluded. “To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the cytotoxicity of Fumaria officinalis extracts in MM cell lines. CF and EF fractions inhibited MM cell proliferation through various modes of actions.”