A Rare Case of Co-Occurring Multiple Myeloma and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Researchers reported a rare case of co-occurring multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The case study was published in The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

“The co-occurrence of two rare malignancies CML and MM in the same patient is an extremely rare incident, and simultaneous diagnosis of CML and MM is reported in only five cases in the literature,” the researchers wrote.

The study documents a case of 75-year-old man who presented to the hospital with fatigue, loss of appetite, and unexplained weight loss over four months. Upon evaluation, he was found to have normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, elevated serum-calcium concentration, and azotemia. A subsequent blood test for the BCR-ABL fusion gene product was positive by fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, the researchers noted, bone marrow biopsy revealed CD138-positive, 15% plasma cells. The patient was diagnosed with co-occurring of CML and MM.

“Although we can’t be certain regarding the cause of CML and MM in our patient, the hypothesis that they evolved from common malignant pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells still holds,” the authors concluded. However, they added that “at the age of 75 years, [this occurrence] might be just due to chance.”