Introduction: An increasing number of patients sustaining a fragility hip fracture (FHF) have either an active diagnosis or a history of cancer. However, little is known about the outcomes of non-malignant related FHF in this group of patients. We aimed to evaluate the mortality and complications rates during hospitalization, as well as at 1-year follow-up within this population.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients 65 years of age and above, who underwent surgery for the treatment of proximal femoral fractures between January 2012 and June 2016 was conducted. Patients diagnosed with malignancies, both solid (Carcinomas) and a hematological neoplasias (Lymphomas, Multiple Myeloma) were included, along with consecutive controls without a diagnosis of cancer in the 5 years prior to the study period. Demographic, clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded and analyzed.
Results: Seven hundred and fifty-two patients with FHF were included, of whom 51 had a malignancy diagnosis within the 5-year period preceding the fracture (18% metastatic disease). The mean time from malignancy diagnosis to FHF was 4.3 ± 4.8 years. Time to surgery did not differ between groups, and the vast majority of patients from both groups (over 87%) were operated within the desirable 48 h from admission. Patients with malignancy had a higher probability of being admitted to an internal medicine department both pre and post-surgically (p < 0.001), and were more susceptible to pre-operative anemia (p = 0.034). In-hospital mortality did not differ between groups, yet 1-year mortality was higher for the malignancy group (41.2% vs 19.5%, p < 0.001). At 1-year post-operatively, orthopedic complications were similar between groups.
Conclusion: Patients with a history of malignancy in the 5-years prior to a non-neoplastic FHF, showed similar mortality and complications rates during admission but increased 1 year mortality rate when compared to patients without cancer undergoing surgical treatment of a non-neoplastic proximal femoral fracture.