No GVHD With Allogeneic CAR-T in Multiple Myeloma

By Cecilia Brown - Last Updated: December 9, 2022

No graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who received allogeneic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy in the phase I UNIVERSAL trial.

Sham Mailankody, MBBS, of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues conducted the trial and presented its results at the 64th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting and Exposition.

They evaluated ALLO-715, a genetically modified anti–B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) CAR-T therapy that disrupts the T-cell receptor alpha constant and the CD52 genes “to eliminate the risk of graft-versus-host disease and permit the use of ALLO-647, an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, for selective and transitory host lymphodepletion,” according to Dr. Mailankody and colleagues.

The open-label trial included 53 adults with relapsed/refractory MM who received at least 3 prior lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulator, and an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody. The patients underwent lymphodepletion before receiving ALLO-715 at 1 of 4 dose levels.

The researchers evaluated the following dose levels in a 3+3 dose-escalation design: dose level 1, 40×106 CAR+ T-cells; dose level 2, 160×106 CAR+ T-cells; dose level 3, 320×106 CAR+ T-cells; and dose level 4, 480×106 CAR+ T-cells. The patients received varied doses and schedules of lymphodepletion involving ALLO-647 with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. Nearly all (98%) patients who underwent lymphodepletion received ALLO-715 by the data cut-off point.

The researchers chose 2 of the dose level 3 cohorts for expansion and conducted lymphodepletion with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide plus ALLO-647 39 mg or 60 mg in the cohorts. Dose level 3 was considered the “most active cell dose,” according to Dr. Mailankody and colleagues.

None of the patients developed GVHD or dose-limiting toxicities. However, cytokine release syndrome occurred in 52% of patients and “potential events of neurotoxicity” were identified in 11%, according to Dr. Mailankody and colleagues. Grade III or higher adverse events included neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia. More than half (56%) of patients had infections, which were grade III or higher in 29%.

The overall response rate (ORR) was 64% in patients receiving dose level 3 with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide plus ALLO-647 39 mg (n=11). A total of 55% achieved a very good partial response or better, and 27% achieved a complete response (CR) or stringent CR.

The ORR was 80% in patients receiving dose level 3 with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide plus ALLO-647 60 mg. A total of 50% achieved a very good partial response or better, and 20% achieved a CR or stringent CR.

Of the 15 patients who responded, 9 had responses at 14 days, with 2 patients receiving ALLO-647 39 mg still having an ongoing response at 12 months. Of the patients who received ALLO-647 at 90 mg, 3 patients had ongoing responses at 12, 19, and 20 months. Most patients (91%) who were assessed for MRD and had a very good partial response or better were MRD negative.

“UNIVERSAL demonstrates significant and durable responses from allogeneic CAR-T therapy. ALLO-715 [dose level 3] with [fludarabine and cyclophosphamide plus ALLO-647 39 mg or ALLO-647 60 mg] was associated with clinically meaningful efficacy, including [very good partial response or better] rates of 55% and 50% without requiring leukapheresis or bridging therapy,” Dr. Mailankody and colleagues concluded. “Ninety-eight percent of [patients] receiving [lymphodepletion] received ALLO-715 with 100% of product manufactured and released per product specifications. [Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide plus ALLO-647] induces a deep and durable window of lymphocyte depletion allowing CAR T-cell expansion.”

Mailankody S, Matous JV, Liedtke M, et al. Universal updated phase 1 data highlights role of allogeneic anti-BCMA ALLO-715 therapy for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Abstract #2019. Presented at the 64th ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition; December 10-13, 2022; New Orleans, Louisiana.

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